The Toll House at Steanor Bottom, Todmorden Road
Photograph: Iain Spencer Gerrard
Natural England is a new national government agency with a huge role to play in the South Pennines. From a Sheffield HQ, it brings together English Nature, the landscape, access and recreation parts of the Countryside Agency and the Rural Development Service.
"Natural England" says Helen Phillips, Chief Executive "is about four things: a healthy natural environment, people's enjoyment of it, sustainable use of our natural resources and a secure environmental future". Urban as well as rural, Natural England is "as much about tomorrow as today".
The three founding bodies of Natural England have had a long association with the South Pennines and this will continue. One of the most important upland blocks in England for its wildlife, Sites of Special Scientific Interest and Special Protection Areas conserve special habitats such as upland heathland and blanket bog and the species found there: the evocative Curlew and Golden Plover, the insectivorous Sundew and Butterworth.
Natural England recognises that the key to success is quality moorland management and working with the farmers and landowners in a constructive way; for example, financial incentives to manage habitats or restore landscape features. The organisation has legal powers to counter potentially adverse proposals.
Open access and "safe and informed" open-air recreation is a Natural England priority. This is currently being tested on Ilkley Moor recognising that the South Pennines' proximity to towns and cities provides fantastic opportunities and benefits. Our natural environment must remain in good heart to be able to cope with future challenges. For instance, the moorlands are the source of much of our drinking water. Hence Natural England's partnership with bodies such as Yorkshire Water and the Environment Agency.
Jeff Lunn, Natural England's area manager adds "The South Pennines is a very special area and Natural England is committed to playing its part to ensure that it is conserved, enhanced and managed for the benefit of present and future generations. We believe that working together in partnership is the best way of doing this and support organisations such as Pennine Prospects which aim to bring together collective action and resources to help it succeed."
(Based on an article in South Pennine Visitor published by Pennine Heritage and Pennine Prospects.)
See the article by John Street in this Newsletter for details of other initiatives in the Pennine area.
We are delighted to report that funding has been approved for the creation of a flower meadow on the old gasworks site off Hare Hill Road.
Volunteer workers clearing the meadow.
The Chairman, as ever, too shy to pose for the camera.
The main part of the funding will come from the Pilsworth Environmental Company withsignificant additional support from McCormick Europe, who have factories in Littleborough, and the MoorEnd Trust.
The work will be carried out by the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers, who plan to start in August with the rebuilding of three paths. Planting will follow with a scheme including Primroses from plugs, other wild flowers from seed, and bulbs of Wood Anenomes, Snowdrops and Wild Garlic.
Members of the LCT and other volunteers met one Saturday morning in May to tidy up the site of the Flower Meadow. This was the second such gathering. At the first, earlier in the year, a skip, provided by Rochdale M.B.C., was filled long before all the rubbish, brambles, dead wood etc. had been cleared.
On the second occasion, another, larger, skip was again filled during a busy morning's work, leaving the site largely clear of the mess that had accumulated over the years and ready for planting.
The Littleborough Civic Trust Annual General Meeting was held at the end of April.
Following the resignation of Don Pickis as Chairman and Joan Smith as Treasurer, there were a number of changes to the Committee. Russell Johnson, then the Deputy Chairman, became the new Chairman and Jill Roberts our Membership Secretary became the new Treasurer.
The meeting was followed by an illustrated talk by Tim Boddington, Vice Chairman of the Civic Society in Bollington in Cheshire, covering some of the history of this characterful village and describing the achievements of the very active and successful Civic Society, which gave considerable food for thought to the LCT members present. A brief summary of the talk is given later in the Newsletter.
Since our last edition three months ago the company wishing to stick industrial units on our uplands and moorlands has applied for planning permission to Rochdale M.B.C. (Crook Hill/Great Hill), Rossendale B.C. (Reaps Moss/Hoggs Head Law) & Calderdale M.B.C. (Todmorden Moor, Crook Hill & Limers Gate). The latter is for the access path only to Reaps Moss/Hoggs Head Law site but because it is in Calderdale it requires a separate planning application. There are two separate applications for Crook Hill/Great Hill because the site spans the boundaries between Rochdale and Calderdale.
Confusing isn't it?
So far none of the boroughs mentioned above have reached the point where a decision can be taken. Because of the large number of objections to all of the applications they will all have to be considered by the Planning Committees rather than just the officers of the planning departments.
However, unlike in Rochdale where the Pennines Township Planning Committee has considerable autonomy to come to its own decisions, all decisions in Calderdale are made in Halifax but subject to recommendations from the appropriate local council, in this case Todmorden.
Todmorden has considered all four applications in its area and has comprehensively turned them down, sometimes unanimously and sometimes with one abstention. This does not mean that the issue is settled but Todmorden's concerns will have to be borne in mind when Halifax eventually considers the applications.
If you are with us on this matter keep your collective fingers crossed that we will eventually defeat this nonsense.
You may have heard of the trouble recently experienced at Trub, near Castleton, where a local chap in dispute with British Waterways rather petulantly used an excavator to dig out the canal side, creating a flood and the emptying of a canal pound. That effectively closed the canal to through traffic, once again, until the beginning of June.
So the canal is open again.
Well, no and yes!
Some local lads with time on their hands and little in the way of brains thought it would be fun to pinch a car and drive it to one of the canal bridges near Belfield and demolish it. Most of both parapets were pushed into the canal, visible above the water level, and blocking it completely. This is not British Waterways' fault but you have to question both it and the local police's commitment to controlling vandalism. I am led to believe that the demolition job took three visits by the vandals on three consecutive nights! Local people, so I'm told, were ringing the police and British Waterways but to no avail. The bridge is a listed structure and should have special protection in law. Thankfully, the latest news is that the blockage has been removed and the canal is open again. How long for remains to be seen!
Following the decision by the Pennines Councillors to reject the last application by Brierstone Properties for 55 dwellings at Durn, the company placed an appeal against the decision before the Planning Inspectorate. Then, just for good measure, they added a separate appeal against the earlier rejection for 61 houses and apartments
Littleborough Civic Trust wrote to the Planning Inspectorate stating our views on the issues and subsequently we attended the hearing, held in the Rochdale Town Hall on the 30th May. The Inspector put both appeals together as they were so similar in nature. A representative of the Durn Action Group, composed of concerned local residents, spoke to the inspector against the appeal and the architect appointed by Brierstone spoke for the appeal.
We have now heard from the Planning Inspectorate of the decisions reached by the Inspector and are delighted to report that she has upheld the original decisions by the Pennines Councillors and has rejected both appeals.
She identified the main issue relating to both appeals was the effect of the proposed development on the character and appearance of the area.
She noted that the site location was near the edge of the town where views suddenly open out along the northerly section of the canal corridor and that there was a sense of relief from the fairly enclosed built up nature of Halifax Road. She felt that the canal was clearly an important feature of the landscape and also important through its contribution to a wide range of recreational activities which centre on it. Overall, there was in her opinion a sense of this being a special and individual site which, despite the constraints of shape and levels, merited a high quality, appropriate development which respected and was well related to the canal.
In regard to our expressed concerns over the massing and wall-like nature of the proposed development she said that the form of the development comprising eleven closely spaced blocks would result in too much coverage of built form that would appear as a wall when seen from the canal tow path and the road. Tellingly she said that neither of the proposed schemes would enhance the canal corridor or be well related to the canal and that significant harm to the character and appearance of the wider area would result from the loss of greenness and openness in views towards the north.
Our concerns over the density of development were vindicated in that she said that a case could be made for a lower density than even the normally sought 30 to 50 dwellings at this particular location.
The (in our opinion) rather arbitrary use of various materials, all in the same buildings, was felt by her to be less beneficial in this particular site than the more extensive use of natural stone and natural slate would be which would better relate to the generally more traditional properties nearby.
She found no significant objections to the proposed 106 agreements which relate to Planning Gain. This is where damage to the area due to the development in question is mitigated by an agreement to pay money towards some improvements benefiting the town. However this seemed to be influenced by the Council at the hearing that the proposals, to which we objected, satisfied its concerns. So that's all right then. We've said before that we are dissatisfied with the way these matters are agreed between the Planning department and the developer before being presented to the Pennines Township Planning Committee as a fait accompli. This is the case here.
We sincerely hope that if and when Brierstone Properties come back with a further planning application for the site we don't still find them scrabbling for the maximum financial return without due consideration of what is wanted and needed on this site.
The Friends of the South Pennines are producing a detailed "Objection Report" to Coronation Power's proposals for Crook Hill. This will take some time as the amount of documentation produced by Coronation Power in support of the development is very large and requires detailed study. However, a draft of the section of the Report dealing with issues of access has been produced, which draws attention to the difficult, narrow 1.5 mile route from the A58 at Featherstall (Sun Hotel) to St. James Church at Calderbrook. This route along Whitelees Road and Calderbrook Road is characterized by steep sections, acute bends and narrow sections where the flow of traffic is often reduced to one way. Residents' parked cars, commercial traffic and buses frequently cause congestion, which is made worse by the lack of off road parking. The road is also poorly surfaced, which significantly slows traffic and further adds to the difficulties.
There are also hazards along the route for pedestrians, residents and visitors. The route passes St. Mary's RC Primary School, the Fire Station and the Caldermoor crossroads, a narrow section of extreme difficulty (blind corner with no pavement and opposing vehicles often brought to a standstill) before reaching Littleborough Community Primary School. Further along there is the children's playground and the junction with Barnes Meadows, which leads to a large housing area and also to Stansfield Primary School. There is a high population of children and teenagers in this area. Additionally, funerals and other events at St. James Church make for an area of concentrated local activity just where the construction site entrance to the turbine station is proposed.
Road juntion by St James' Church, Calderbrook
Photograph: Iain Spencer Gerrard
It is interesting to note that Coronation Power stated at their public presentations that they had failed to secure better access to Crook Hill over open land in Wardle or Littleborough and therefore have had to resort to a fourth or fifth choice of moorland access at St. James Church, which they now describe as "satisfactory".
It is extremely difficult to envisage an access at this point for the concrete mixers, construction vehicles, cranes, plant and massive turbine equipment which would also allow the general public, traffic and local residents to proceed in safety.
Friends of the South Pennines believes that the whole application stands or falls on the issue of access and should be refused on those grounds alone. There are, however, supporting issues regarding the wind turbines themselves. The report expresses concerns about dangers to walkers and riders on Crook Hill, an area of common land crossed by many public rights of way, paths and bridleways. The rotor blades weigh in excess of one and a half tons and the tips of the blades travel at speeds in excess of 180mph. The safety implications of this are considerable. There are recorded incidents, in Britain and in Europe, where parts of blades have been broken and found many metres from the damaged turbine. Crook Hill would be one of the highest wind power stations in Britain and would contain some of the tallest turbines used in this country.
The build up of ice on turbine blades can also be a problem. The operators of the Ovenden Moor site, above Halifax, have acknowledged this and have erected signs warning of the dangers of falling ice. Icing is a very real problem in exposed areas, and if it were going to be a problem anywhere in England it would be a problem here at Crook Hill. Lumps of ice formed on turbine blades could be thrown distances of up to half a kilometre and could land at impact speeds of up to 170mph. The public safety aspects of this are obvious.
The LCT has sent a response to the recently–announced proposals for the development of the former Akzo– Nobel site in Littleborough, following the exhibition that was held at the United Reformed Church. The response is in the form of a letter to the public relations firm that ran the exhibition on behalf of developers the Woodford Group. The substance of the letter is reproduced below.
"Littleborough Civic Trust has been concerned for some years over the extensive housing developments which have been occurring in Littleborough. Most of these have been designed without recognition of the existing appearance of the locality or questioning the need for such developments in the town.
"Littleborough has lost much of what originally made it into a town. Most of the industry has gone and we have lost important centres of the community such as the old high school. There is presently nothing within the town in the way of entertainment and the shopping centre has suffered because of a change in purchasing patterns, admittedly due to the reduction in local jobs and the advent of supermarkets, but also because of the introduction of many new people and families who owe no allegiance to the locality and have their roots elsewhere.
"It is fast becoming little more than a dormitory town to Rochdale and Manchester with all that that description infers in terms of sterility of community life.
"Your proposals for a further 165 dwellings forming 'a new, vibrant community' appears to be more of the same. Communities cannot be created just like that. Even if you provided sufficient additional infrastructure to justify the use of the word it would take many years before it became a reality.
"We therefore start from the position that we don't think any more housing is needed for the medium term in the town, and certainly not this number. Our first preference, despite total opposition from the education department which has its own grandiose schemes based on economics and not community, would be for a new high school to serve the Pennine Township. This would need to have a swimming pool and indoor health/athletic centre which would be available for use by the area as a whole and would be an asset to the town.
"We would certainly place a high priority on the provision of such a centre whether it came with a school or not and we acknowledge that you have shown some form of leisure facilities on your site plan. However no details are even hinted at as to what these might be and when questioned at the exhibition the representative was rather vague also. So essential do we see this part of your proposals as a needed benefit to Littleborough that we would feel it important that approval of any development of the site should require an assurance from the developer that he would find a way to ensure that this was not just passed over in the rush to profit from the housing development. We fear that to agree to a variety of small town improvements through a 106 agreement with the planning department would not address this issue in any meaningful way but might allow the developer to say he had complied with the requirements imposed upon him by the planners and so feel relieved of the need to try very hard to make a leisure facility work on this site.
"Should housing be allowed despite the above comments we would think it important that the development is carried out in the full knowledge of the impact it will have on the town and the surrounding area. Traffic locally is already creating significant problems for residents and there can be no real 'improvements' to the roads hereabouts which would alleviate this. New roads or the widening of existing roads are not options as they would be seen as destructive to the appearance of the town, destroying either green spaces or requiring the removal of existing houses all of which give the area its character. Local rail and bus services are inadequate in providing acceptable alternatives to the private car, despite the congestion, and are in our view unlikely to be seen as such by a majority of local people for the foreseeable future. This is one reason why the roads are presently so overused - badly planned developments in the context of the area as a whole, without proper consideration and amelioration of the effects on the existing infrastructure. Newcomers in particular commute for every purpose, to go to work, to go to school, to go shopping and for entertainment. This development with its emphasis on 3– and 4– bedroom houses would produce at least two cars per dwelling – whether you provide sufficient car parking or not! – which would place at least 300+ further cars on the roads. The Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive's plans to improve links around Manchester prior to congestion charging do not include 'improvements' to Littleborough&'39;s road or rail network.
"It is worth mentioning here that the area designated as 'C' on the site is in the green belt and although Akzo Nobel used this as an occasional car park it never applied for nor was granted planning permission for this purpose and it remains as part of the green belt in the Unitary Development Plan for Rochdale.
"While writing we would direct the developer's attention to the Littleborough Town Design Statement which was published in 2005 by this society, having been comprehensively put together with the help of the people of Littleborough, and is not only a Supplementary Planning Guide to the local Unitary Development Plan but contains a vision of the future of the town as we would wish to see it develop."
A public meeting was held at the end of April with the aim of setting up a Friends Group for Hollingworth Lake. The meeting was well-attended, with 52 members of the public present, in addition to the Hollingworth Lake Working Group, whose members include Councillors Ashley Dearnley and Peter Evans. This group was established last year to look at ways of making improvements to the Country Park, working with Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council departments, external agencies and volunteers. Recent achievements include:
The next step was felt to be the formation of a Friends group. Andrew Whitehead (Countryside and Community Facilities Manager) said that friends groups were now an important part of determining how Council facilities and services are developed and managed and were particularly valuable for a facility such as Hollingworth Lake, which is used by a large number of people with widely varying interests.
Early issues identified for consideration by the Friends include the lack of public footpaths around the lake and consequent dangers to pedestrians and obtaining Green Flag status (a prestigious award obtained by Hare Hill Park last year). Concerns have also been raised about lack of parking and inadequate police or warden presence.
The inaugural meeting of the Friends took place on the 14th of June. The main officers of the group including chair, secretary and treasurer were elected, and proposals for a constitution discussed. Anyone interested in joining the Friends or wanting any further information should contact Katie Kinsella, Assistant Township Manager – Pennines, at Littleborough Council Offices.
Walkers using Rakewood Road alongside Hollingworth Lake
A Hollingworth Lake subgroup of the Littleborough Civic Trust Committee has been formed to consider issues that they might usefully raise with the appropriate authorities. Its first chosen task was to consider the problem of the road around the Lake, in particular the stretch from the end of the Ealees dam to the junction at which the Lake path separates from Rakewood Road.
This stretch has been of concern since the LCT was first involved in discussions on the formation of the Country Park in the 1970s. On this stretch, pedestrians have to share the road with vehicles: there is not even a small provision for them to walk in safety, as the photograph shows. Of the possible solutions identified, the most promising is to culvert and board over the drain and brook which runs along the side of the road (on the left of the photograph) and making this a designated pedestrian way. This idea was discussed with United Utilities who had no objection to the proposal (it would in fact reduce the amount of maintenance required). The main problem is likely to be obtaining the funding, estimated at some £50,000.
It is with great sadness that we report the death of Alice Burrill, a member of the Littleborough Civic Trust for many years.
She was by profession a teacher, starting her career after the war, teaching first at Holy Trinity School then moving to the newly'built High School.
Alice was gifted in many aspects of needlework and lace'making, spending many years at Threads in Todmorden and also in Littleborough.
She was connected with Littleborough Coach House from its inception, performing regular volunteer duties in the Heritage Centre. Alice was also a very enthusiastic fund raiser, providing a well'stocked handicraft stall at the Coach House Summer Market and the Christmas Fair, while the supply of her jams and marmalades was virtually inexhaustible throughout the year.
Even though she was born in Littleborough and, other than in the war years, lived in the town, she had a strong association with and affection for Yorkshire. There was always at least one annual holiday at Reeth in Swaledale and she took daily delivery of the Yorkshire Post.
Alice was a highly respected lady and a tremendous supporter of anything and anyone local. A strong character with a strong sense of duty she built up a large circle of friends and acquaintances and always had much time for her pupils of past years.
She will be greatly missed by many in Littleborough.
Water Street, Bollington, Cheshire
Bollington, near Macclesfield, is the only stone village in Cheshire, being built from stone quarried locally and famous for its high quality. It was once a mill town, notable for producing very fine cotton suitable for lacemaking. The milling of cotton started in the 18th century using water power. Many mills have gone, but some remain (one has been in daily use since 1818) and light industry and other modern businesses in the mill buildings actually employ more people today than in the cotton era.
Local industry was revitalised by the opening of the Macclesfield Canal in 1831 and further large mills were built along its banks. The replacement of water power by steam further boosted the industry, using coal mined in the area. The railway arrived in 1871 and closed a hundred years later.
Like many small towns and villages there has been a decline in some aspects of local life. For example, sixty local shops a few years ago have been reduced to around twenty in a village of just over 7,000 people. However, Bollington has always had a strong sense of community, hosting something like 40 diverse community groups and holding a two–week festival every 4–6 years that can claim to be the largest amateur–organised festival in the U.K.
Out of this community spirit was born the Bollington Civic Society in 1964. Created largely to oppose undesirable developments it is now a vibrant group boasting a large membership (including a significant proportion of younger people, many attracted to specific local projects) and has a large number of achievements to its credit.
Its History Group has published books and amassed a collection of some 5,500 photographs of the locality dating back to the 1860s (some of which Tim used to illustrate his talk) which have been digitised and are currently being identified and catalogued.
The Society has been responsible for a number of successful initiatives aimed at bringing neglected local buildings back into use for the benefit of the community. One recent example is the Discovery Centre, created in a previously disused room in a canalside mill, which now tells the story of Bollington through exhibitions and also houses the Society's historic photograph collection.
The Society is currently involved with setting up a Tourism Group to work with the Town Council to boost tourism in the area. Last year the Bollington Carbon Revolution group was formed to examine what types of action the community needs to take in order to measure and reduce its carbon footprint.
If you are interested in finding out more about Bollington or the Civic Society, check out their website: www.happy–valley.org.uk.
It is a few minutes past 8.0 a.m. and I am sitting in a carriage running from Littleborough into Manchester. The aim is to go to a conference called 'On the Edge' which is intended to explore the issues and opportunities that exist for those areas which fall within the Greater Manchester Rural Fringe. Our Pennines District is geographically absolutely in the middle of this area. The venue for the event is a converted church in Ardwick, Manchester. Today, the church houses the Greater Manchester Centre for Voluntary Organisations (GMCVO). Rochdale is an identified part of the rural fringe and the objective is to make the fringe 'a strong, diverse and influential voluntary sector within the Greater Manchester entity'.
My objective was to see where the MoorEnd Trust and our local Civic Trust might contribute or 'best' fit into the whole Renaissance objectives in N.W. England and specifically with Manchester.
During the journey I remembered another time when I had made a train trip into Manchester with different, albeit serious intentions. It was in 1961. At the time I had just finished 6 years of geodetic map making in Africa. My next posting was to be to Australia to share in the creation of the equivalent of our Ordnance Survey. It was so tempting, but I decided to stay at home.
So I arranged to get interviews for a number of different opportunities i.e. a new job in Manchester. Time passed all too slowly after a bad first interview. I went into Piccadilly Gardens and decided it was time for lunch. No sooner had I sat down, when a man with an American accent asked if he could sit with me, as all the tables were occupied. It turned out that he was the European Director of an American company that manufactured computers and adding and calculating machines. They were busy re-opening the subsidiary operations throughout the world, which had been closed down during the World War: Would I join them? I said a three month trial please - and solved the problem for 30 years.
I went outside to look at Manchester through new eyes. It was fascinating with huge open spaces where bombs had fallen, and dozens of great buildings that had been the pride of the textile giants, wonderfully built in stone and brick, but empty. On the other hand there were new shops, great changes in the lighting and road layout, and some years later a sky scraper, Rodwell Tower, was built opposite Piccadilly Station directly over the Rochdale canal.
To return to my present visit, I remembered those times and how they had influenced me so much. So I decided to walk from Victoria Station to Ardwick and look once more at Manchester. The images today are of new buildings, great energy, much cleaner with enormous structural changes. The city is clearly being pitched to be the centre of N.W. England. Perhaps the last comment should be on the effort that has gone into handling the volume and size of the vehicles that come in to the city. Going down the London Road when everyone is 'coming in' is an impressive experience.
As I arrived at Ardwick I immediately remembered that I had been there before. As a youth I had joined in a bicycle race to the Lake District and back. I just could not make it home to Stockport so I slept there in the bushes with about two visits from policemen concerned about my well-being!
The Seminar was run by Manchester Enterprises which is the economic Development Agency for Greater Manchester. Its aim is to look after the Rural Development Programme (which is a country wide initiative) for NW England.
Initially it has been funded with £410,000 annually up to 2013. The available funds are split into:
(These appear to be modest amounts but these are early days in terms of the size of the projects. This initiative is added value to current schemes and becomes open to the public in October 2007.)
Our day long project was to explore this and similar issues in Greater Manchester's rural fringe, of which Rochdale and especially Littleborough and the Pennine Township is a significant part.
The people of Manchester Enterprises will help with governance, employment, management, research, performance etc.
Another source of help and information are Pennine Prospects 'phone GMCVO (see below for numbers). This structure exists specifically for the South Pennines.
There are three units of importance to us: Manchester, Leeds and Central Lancashire. These three areas represent 7 million people who are within one hour of travel from Littleborough. This makes Littleborough potentially a key tourist destination in the North of England.
Our South Pennine area has numerous sites of Special Interest, Protection and Conservation. There is also a unique collection of Built Heritage within the area with great tourist appeal.
Outside the defined area of our Pennine District we must also liaise with Blackburn and Burnley area, the Bradford, Leeds and Huddersfield areas and the Oldham, Manchester, Rochdale area. The reasoning here is fairly obvious as such boundaries on the ground are rather artificial.
Manchester Enterprises: 0800 2 798 798
Pennine Prospects: 01274 433536 (company secretary); 01274 431019 (Development manager).
GMCVO: 0161 277 1000.
Aim: to represent, help, promote or develop organisations within our Pennine District and adjacent areas.
It can be involved in all relevant voluntary National Support.
A Picture of the Greater Manchester Perceptions of the Rural and Fringe Communities 2006 – 2007
Interim Report: Development Office Rural Research Unit
Mellesa Parsons (Development Officer)
Very important material which tackles the G.M. Rural Fringes structure and communication.
On The Edge
An up to date overview of the ten entities that make up Greater Manchester.
Indispensable if you are making judgements about the local rural areas both in national, regional and local contexts.
Telephone 0161 277 1007.
In summary I believe there will be strong support for a wide range of outdoor activities along the South Pennines, and we will find that we can talk to people who care about our kind of initiatives and who are both capable and willing to help.
The above types of development are already happening to Hebden Bridge and Todmorden. Such developments can be a beacon for what we in Littleborough and the Pennine District can achieve in the immediate future.
An Elephant has four legs.....doesn't it!?
Editor: Brian Walker